Saline seepage in deltaic areas
– Preferential groundwater discharge through boils and interactions between thin rainwater lenses and upward saline
Perry de Louw (2013), PhD thesis, VU University Amsterdam, 202 pp.
More than 50% of world’s population lives in coastal areas and is largely dependent on fresh groundwater resources for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. However, in many coastal areas, groundwater is brackish to saline which may pose problems for the sustainable exploitation of fresh groundwater. In low-lying coastal areas that lie below mean sea level, saline groundwater may reach the surface by upward groundwater flow. This process is referred to as «saline seepage» and is the main subject of this PhD thesis. Saline seepage leads to the salinization of surface waters, shallow groundwater and soil water in the root zone. Climate change and future rise in sea level are expected to increase saline seepage and reduce the availability of both fresh surface water and groundwater. Predicting effects of future changes, defining effective water management strategies for a climate proof sustainable freshwater supply and successful implementation of any measure are only meaningful when all relevant processes involving saline seepage are fully understood. This thesis describes the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of salinization processes involving saline seepage in deltaic areas. The research focused on the preferential saline seepage through boils leading to surface water salinization (Part I) and the interaction between thin rainwater lenses and saline seepage leading to the salinization of shallow groundwater and the root zone (Part II). These two processes were identified as important contributors to the salinization of the Dutch delta which was the study area of this PhD research.
Linkages between streamflow, climate and catchment characteristics: a global analysis
Hylke E. Beck (2013), PhD thesis, VU University Amsterdam, 122 pp.
The general objectives of this thesis are to relate streamflow characteristics and catchment physiographic attributes over a wide range of catchment and climatic conditions, and to determine the value of specic satellite remote-sensing products for use in meso- and macroscale hydrological modeling. In order to fulll these general objectives, five specific objectives have been defined, which are addressed in separate chapters. The specific objectives are to:
1. Assess the possible improvement in stormflow estimates when using soil moisture proxies (chapter 2)
2. Globally evaluate four AVHRR-based NDVI datasets (chapter 3)
3. Analyze the possible impact of forest regeneration and urbanization on streamflow characteristics for a series of catchments on the island of Puerto Rico (chapter 4)
4. Relate selected catchment physiographic attributes and two important baseflow characteristics using a global streamflow dataset consisting of 3520 catchments, and examine the feasability of producing global maps of these baseflow characteristics using an artificial neural network approach (chapter 5)
5. Examine whether global maps of selected streamflow characteristics can be used to calibrate a simple conceptual rainfall-runoff model (chapter 6).
Finally, a summary of the present findings, chief conclusion reached, and suggestions for possible directions for future research are presented in chapter 7.
To achieve these specic objectives, use is made of large observational datasets which have become available free of charge thanks to organizations such as the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC; Koblenz, Germany), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), rather than restricting oneself to case studies in comparatively small homogeneous regions. The aim is to move away from the reporting of the idiosyncrasies of single sites or catchments which has dominated so much of the older hydrological literature, and instead attempt to identify robust, generalizable relationships applicable to different environments worldwide.
Water Use of Forests in the Netherlands
Eddy J. Moors (2012); PhD thesis, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 291 pp.
Forests are complex ecosystems with a large variability in the horizontal as well as in the vertical space. To study the dissimilarities in water use for different forest types, the water and energy balance of five forest stands in the Netherlands were observed during periods varying from two years to more than 15 years. The main tree species of the stands were: Scots pine, poplar, oak, larch and at one site a mixture of pine, birch, beech and oak.
Under dry conditions the evaporation rate was mainly controlled by the opening and closing of the stomata. Overall the most important driver was the vapour pressure deficit.
For wet conditions it is shown that the evaporation at the end of the shower and just after the shower is much larger than often assumed. In most models this underestimation of the evaporation rate of intercepted water is compensated by an underestimation of the water storage capacity of the leaves.
Informing groundwater models with near-surface geophysical data
Daan Herckenrath (2012); PhD thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, 168 pp.
Over the past decade geophysical methods have gained an increased popularity due to their ability to map hydrologic properties. Such data sets can provide valuable information to improve hydrologic models. Instead of using the measured geophysical and hydrologic data simultaneously in one inversion approach, many of the previous studies apply a Sequential Hydrogeophysical Inversion (SHI) in which inverted geophysical models provide information for hydrologic models. In order to fully exploit the information contained in geophysical datasets for hydrological purposes, a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion was introduced (CHI), in which a hydrologic model is part of the geophysical inversion. Current CHI-research has been focussing on the translation of simulated state variables of hydrologic models to geophysical model parameters. We refer to this methodology as CHI-S (State). In this thesis a new CHI-approach was developed, called CHI-P (Parameter), which applies coupling constraints between the geophysical and hydrologic model parameters.
Groundwater System Identification through Time Series Analysis
J.R. von Asmuth (2012); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 228 pp.
Careful analysis of groundwater level fluctuations may reveal much of the functioning of systems, and of the effects of individual factors. This is shown by many, but practiced by too few, as traditional time series analysis theory and software are complex. In this thesis, a new method of time series analysis is presented. Its continuous time formulation fits existing physical-hydrologic theory and methods well. It is shown that groundwater level responses generally take the shape of simple distribution functions. This notion, combined with the program Menyanthes that was developed, enable the quick and easy analysis of large numbers of time series. The spatial patterns that emerge in the results of multiple models literally add another dimension to the technique. As time series models are usually accurate also, they may be valuable to every (eco)hydrologist.
Transport of multiple Escherichia coli strains in saturated porous media
George Lutterodt (2012); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 148 pp.
The deviation of bacteria transport and deposition patterns on grains in porous media from theory has resulted in the inability to accurately predict transport distances in aquifers, with consequences of polluting drinking water sources (springs, boreholes and wells). Due to the importance of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an indicator of faecal contamination of drinking water supplies, this thesis research focused on their transport in saturated porous media. The objectives were to (i) study inter-strain and intra-strain attachment variability among multiple E. coli strains, (ii) characterize the distribution of sticking efficiencies within cell populations (iii) develop a methodology to measure minimum values of sticking efficiencies, and (iv) to assess the contribution of various cell properties on bacterial attachment to quartz grains. Most of this research was carried out under laboratory conditions (e.g. column and batch experiments), but a part of this work focused on the transport characteristics of E. coli strains isolated at the termination point of groundwater flow lines (springs) in Kampala, Uganda. The underlying hypothesis was that transport by a group of E. coli strains could possibly be characterized by a similar set of transport parameters.
Shallow groundwater effect on land surface temperature and surface energy balance
– Description, modeling and remote sensing application
Fouad Alkhaier (2011); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 162 pp.
Mitigating China’s water scarcity and pollution
– Environmental and economic accounting, modelling and policy analysis
Changbo Qin (2011); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 186 pp.
Planning of system innovatins in watersheds – Spatial mapping of environmental and hydrological determinants
in the Pangani and Upper Ewaso Ng’iro North River basins, Africa
Jeniffer Kinoti Mutiga (2011); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 202 pp.
Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality – From field-scale processes to catchment-scale models
Ype van der Velde (2011); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 176 pp.
Present & Future – Visualising ideas of water infrastructure design
Martine Poolman (2011); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 256 pp.
In redevelopment and redesign of small water structures local water governing institutions are increasingly required to and requesting that the planning processes are set up in a participatory manner. Decision making processes that are set-up to be participatory require stakeholders with different backgrounds, ideas, experiences and expertise to come together. Ideally they work collectively towards finding a solution to a problem situation. Because of their differences stakeholders often have different ideas about the problem situation and about the ways to solve it. Discussions take place and ideas are expressed in words or text as each stakeholder tries to explain his view of the situation and possible solution. Horace, however, wrote that »the mind is more slowly stirred by the ear than by the eye«. Visuals could provide a better understanding of a subject than words alone could. This PhD research looks at enabling stakeholders to make and use two-dimensional, still (non-moving) visuals to help identify which differences and similarities there are in stakeholders’ ideas of the problem situation and possible solutions. The main objective of this research was to design a methodology which enables stakeholders to make and use visuals to communicate their ideas about redevelopment and maintenance of small water structures.
Optimisation of monitoring networks for water systems
– Information theory, value of information, and public participation
José Leonardo Afonso Segura (2010); PhD thesis UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, 200 pp.
Monitoring networks provide data that is analysed to help managers make informed decisions about their water systems. Their design and evaluation have a number of challenges that must be resolved, among others, the restriction on having a limited number of monitoring devices. This book presents innovative methods to design and evaluate monitoring networks. The main idea is to maximise the performance of water systems by optimising the information content that can be obtained from monitoring networks. This is done through the combination of models and two theoretical concepts: Information Theory, initially developed in the field of communications, and Value of Information, initially developed in the field of economics. Additionally, the possibility of using public participation to gather information with mobile phones to improve models is also explored in the research. The results of this research demonstrate that monitoring networks can be evaluated and designed by considering new variables, such as the information content, the user of the information and the potential of current mobile phones for data collection.
Soil moisture remote sensing using active microwaves and land surface modeling
Rogier van der Velde (2010); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 313 pp.
The role of interception in the hydrological cycle
Miriam Gerrits (2010); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 146 pp.
Remote sensing of humid tropical coastal waters
– Study of the Berau estuary, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Wiwin Ambarwulan (2010); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 179 pp.
Effect of climate change on temperate forest ecosystems
Reinder Brolsma (2010); PhD thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 160 pp
In temperate climates groundwater can have a strong effect on vegetation, because it can influence the spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture and therefore water and oxygen stress of vegetation. Current IPCC climate projections based on CO2 emission scenarios show a global temperature rise and change in precipitation regime, which will affect hydrological and vegetation systems. This thesis provides a quantitative framework for studying eco-hydrology in groundwater influenced temperate ecosystems. This study shows that quantifying and understanding the response of temperate forest ecosystems to climate change requires combined physically-based hydrological and bio-physically-based vegetation models.
Rainfall variability and estimation for hydrologic modeling
– A remote sensing based study at the source basin of the Upper Blue Nile River
Alemseged Tamiru Haile (2010); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 229 pp.
Climate-proof and process-based relationships between water, oxygen and vegetation
Ruud Bartholomeus (2010); PhD thesis, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 128 pp.
In order to improve vegetation predictions for the future climate, process-based and climate-proof relationships between site factors and vegetation are needed. This thesis addresses the development of climate-proof relationships between soil moisture conditions and vegetation, and shows that the use of correlative, indirect relationships between site factors and vegetation should be discouraged. The effect of climate change on moisture-related plant stresses is complex; both wet and dry extremes may be affected, and conditions that are not present under the current climatic conditions could occur in the future. In order to capture such effects, climate-dependent processes that directly affect vegetation should be analysed. By providing such analysis, this research contributes to one of the required improvements of habitat distribution models.
The role of macropore flow from PLOT to catchment scale – A study in a semi-arid area
Loes van Schaik (2010); PhD thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 174 pp.
Desertification and landscape degradation is a worldwide problem, which is expected to grow in time due to unsustainable land use and climate change. In view of these problems, knowledge of the interaction between vegetation, soil moisture and surface runoff, with subsequent erosion risk is essential. This requires mapping of the spatial and temporal variability of infiltration and runoff production. The influence of preferential flow thereupon is nowadays widely recognized. Therefore in this thesis the role of preferential flow from plot scale to catchment scale on the hydrology is investigated, using field measurements and model applications.
Climatology of extreme rainfall from raingauges and weather radar
Aart Overeem (2009); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 144 pp.
Extreme rainfall events can have a large impact on society and can lead to loss of life and property. Therefore, a reliable climatology of extreme rainfall is of importance, for instance, for the design of hydraulic structures. Such a climatology can be obtained by abstracting maxima from long rainfall records. Subsequently, a probability distribution is fitted to the selected maxima, so that rainfall depths can be estimated for a chosen return period, which can be longer than the rainfall record. In this thesis, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution is used to model annual rainfall maxima.
Computational Intelligence in Rainfall–Runoff Modeling
Nico de Vos (2009); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 149 pp.
Anticipatory Water Management – Using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events
Schalk Jan van Andel (2009); PhD thesis, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, 182 pp.
Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and droughts. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring evacuation of local inhabitants. Therefore, the use of weather forecast information with hydrological models can be invaluable for the operational water manager to expand the forecast horizon and to have time to take appropriate action. This is called Anticipatory Water Management.
Anticipatory actions may have adverse effects, such as when flood control actions turn out to have been unnecessary, because the actual rainfall was less than predicted. Therefore the uncertainty of the forecasts and the associated risks of applying Anticipatory Water Management have to be assessed. To facilitate this assessment, meteorological institutes are providing ensemble predictions to estimate the dynamic uncertainty of weather forecasts. This dissertation presents ways of improving the end-use of ensemble predictions in Anticipatory Water Management.
Satellite data as complementary information for hydrological modelling
Hessel Winsemius (2009); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 186 pp.
Important variables such as rainfall, evaporation, radiation, soil moisture and water storage can nowadays be estimated on the basis of raw satellite observations. This thesis describes the development and application of methods that allow to combine the scarce data, available in poorly gauged catchments, with expert knowledge and modern satellite data, with the purpose to conceptualise, calibrate and validate hydrological models.
Effects of climate variability and land use change on the water budget of large river basins
Ruud Hurkmans (2009); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 196 pp.
Quantification of top soil moisture patterns
– Evaluation of field methods, process-based modelling, remote sensing and an integrated approach
Johannes van der Kwast (2009); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 159 pp.
Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age
Ate Visser (2009); PhD thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 188 pp.
Terrestrial water storage change from temporal gravity variation
S. Hasan (2009); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 97 pp.
Tree transpiration mapping from upscaled sap flow in the Botswana Kalahari
Diana Chavarro Rincon (2009); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 159 pp.
Hydrological now- and forecasting
J. M. Schuurmans (2008); PhD Thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 154 pp.
Integration of operationally available remotely sensed and forecasted hydrometeorological variables into distributed hydrological models
Understanding Hydrological Processes in an Ungauged Catchment in sub-Saharan Africa
Marloes Mul (2009); PhD thesis, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, 144 pp.
Ungauged catchments can be found in many parts of the world, but particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Information collected in a gauged catchment and its regionalisation to ungauged areas is crucial for water resources assessment. Especially farmers in semi-arid zones are in need of such information. Inter and Intra-seasonal rainfall variability is large in these areas, and farmers depend more and more on additional surface and groundwater resources for their crop production. As a result, understanding the key-hydrological processes, and determination of the frequencies and magnitudes of stream flows, is very important for local food production. This is particularly true for the ungauged Makanya catchment in Tanzania, which is the subject of this study.
Measurements and modelling of evapotranspiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns
– A case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil
Antônio Heriberto de Castro Teixeira (2008); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 257 pp.
Hillslope hydrological modeling
– The role of bedrock geometry and hillslope-stream interaction
K. Shahedi (2008); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 146 pp.
Spatial modelling of mountainous basins
– An integrated analysis of the hydrological cycle, climate change and agriculture
Walter Immerzeel (2008); PhD Thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 145 pp.
The relation between geometry, hydrology and stability of complex hillslopes examined using low-dimensional
A. Talebi (2008); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 137 pp.
Global drought in the 20th and 21st centuries
– Analysis of retrospective simulations and future projections of soil moisture
J. Sheffield (2008); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 218 pp.
Hydrometeorological application of microwave links
– Measurement of evaporation and precipitation
H. Leijnse (2007); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 164 pp.
Soil moisture dynamics and land surface-atmosphere interaction
A.J. Teuling (2007); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 88 pp.
Regional crop yield forecasting using probalistic crop growth modelling and remote sensing data assimilation
A.J.W. de Wit (2007); PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 182 pp.
Soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration at the fringe of the Botswana Kalahari, with emphasis on deep rooting vegetation
Obolokile Thothi Obakeng (2007); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 245 pp.
Assessing irrigation performance by using remote sensing
K.M.P.S. Bandara (2006); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 172 pp.
Estimating spatial patterns of soil erosion and deposition in the Andean region using geo-information techniques
– A case study in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Carlos Saavedra (2005); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 265 pp.
Actor analysis for water resources management – Putting the promise into practice
Leon Hermans (2005); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 235 pp.
»The promise of actor analysis can only truly be fulfilled if water experts commit themselves to the exploration of new ways of supporting policy development, venturing along roads they have not travelled before.«
The Nile Hydroclimatology – Impact of the Sudd wetland
Yasir Abbas Mohamed Ali (2005); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 152 pp.
Patterns of groundwater quality – in sandy aquifers under environmental pressure
M.J.M. Vissers (2005); PhD Thesis Utrecht University, Utrecht, 142 pp.
Decision support system for floodwater spreading site selection in Iran
Mirmasoud Kheirkhah Zarkesh (2005); PhD thesis, ITC, University of Twente, Enschede, 273 pp.
Groundwater salinization processes in the coastal area of the Netherlands due to transgressions during the Holocene
V.E.A. Post (2004); PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 138 pp.
The primary objective of Vincent Post’s thesis is to develop quantitative understanding of the processes that caused salinization of groundwater in the coastal area of the Netherlands during the Holocene under natural conditions.
Studies for regional groundwater quality monitoring
Hans Peter Broers (2002); PhD thesis Utrecht University, Utrecht, 229 pp.
Satellite passive microwave surface moisture monitoring
B.T. Gouweleeuw (2000); PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 184 pp.
Ben Gouweleeuw’s thesis investigates the interaction between land use change, climate variability and the regional hydrology in a semi-arid are ain Central Spain. The study has used passive microwave monitoring to investigate spatial variation in soil moisture and produced a model.
Groundwater flow in layered aquifers
C.J. Hemker (2000); PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 143 pp.
The focus of this work is deterministic models of saturated groundwater flow in layered aquifer systems. The term ‘layered aquifer system’ is used to denote two types of system: a) a system of multiple aquifers or multi-aquifer system which comprises a series of aquifers separated by confining layers, and b) a vertically heterogeneous, stratified or multi-layered aquifer which is a single aquifer composed of a number of sublayers. Analytical solutions for many different types of well flow in single aquifers are known and used for pumping test analysis, while only few solutions for two-aquifer systems are available. Pumping tests in the Netherlands have shown that sometimes four or more aquifers are involved. The lack of a proper solution for multi-aquifer systems was felt as an omission in well flow theory. The main objective of this study, therefore, was to develop analytical solutions that can be used for determining geohydrological properties from pumping tests in layered aquifer systems. The study was carried out in two separate periods. Flow in multi-aquifer systems was investigated during the years 1979 to 1986 and, more recently, the same solution method was further developed to investigate flow near wells in multi-layered aquifers.
Sedimentary Heterogeneity and Flow Towards a Well
Joost Herweijer (1997); PhD thesis, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 277 pp.
This dissertation addresses the problem of adequately describing the hydraulic behavior of a heterogeneous aquifer, specifically the flow towards a well. Typically for a subsurface problem, the quantity of available data versus the number of unknowns, is very limited. Therefore, an adequate hydrogeological description still encompasses a range of possible aquifer responses. Thus, a broad approach has been followed to obtain a more or less, reliable estimation of the range of possible aquifer responses within a limited spectrum of sedimentological options. This broad approach includes the following methods: sedimentological analysis; multi-well and single-well pumping tests; tracer experiments; geostatistics; and numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Any application of only one of these methods can lead to a strongly biased and erroneous estimate of the range of aquifer responses. Thus, this dissertation aims at integrating and combining several direct and indirect methods to identify the aquifer’s structure and to analyze the associated groundwater flow and solute transport behavior. The final objective of this research is to characterize a heterogeneous aquifer in order to better describe contaminant flow; many of the findings are also applicable to the recovery of oil from heterogeneous reservoirs.
Impact of sea level rise on groundwater flow regimes: A sensitivity analysis for the Netherlands
G.H.P. Oude Essink (1996); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft.
In this thesis the possible impact of sea-level rise and human activities on vulnerable coastal groundwater flow regimes in the Netherlands for the next millennium is investigated. The focus is on the distribution of fresh and saline groundwater, the volumes of freshwater lenses in the dunes and the seepage and salt load to polders. Since groundwater flow is a slow process, the consequences for the next thousand years are considered. A 2-D model simulating density-dependent groundwater flow and coupled solute transport model is used. The main result is that a severe (irreversible) salinisation process, which is generated by human activities such as the reclamation of the (low-lying) polders during the past centuries, already occurs in the groundwater flow regimes along the Dutch coast, independent of sea-level rise. It is to be expected that sea-level rise intensifies this salinisation process. Feasible countermeasures may, to some extent, retard (but not stop) this salinisation process. The impact of sea-level rise is also discussed in indicative terms for three water management sectors: (1) domestic and industrial water supply from coastal sand-dunes, (2) flushing of water courses of low-lying polders and (3) agriculture in terms of salt damage.
Water and Nutrient Dynamics of Pinus caribaea Plantation Forests on degraded grassland soils in Southwest Viti Levu,
M.J. Waterloo (1994); PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 478 pp.
On Convolutional Processes and Dispersive Groundwater Flow
C. Maas (1994); PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 162 pp.
Review (in Dutch) by Harry Boukes (1995) in Stromingen, vol 1, nr 1, pp 64–65.
Analytical elements for transient groundwater flow
W.J. Zaadnoordijk (1988); PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA, 140 pp.
Hydrological and Biogeochemical aspects of man-made forests in South-Central Java, Indonesia
L.A. Bruijnzeel (1983); PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 249 pp.
This thesis deals with the hydrology and nutrient cycling of tropical plantation forest in Java. It includes information on rainfall interception, evaporation and stream runoff, as well as the associated fluxes of nutrients. This study formed the start of Sampurno’s great hydrological research career in the tropics. Unfortunately, this thesis is not available online as it was printed in the early days of the computer age.
Periodic flow of groundwater
A Systematic Study of Wave Propagation under Confined, Semiconfined and Unconfined Flow
Garth S.J.P. van der Kamp (1973); PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 128